Kordasht Complex


Kordahst or Koordahst village has been the center of Abbass Mirza's army during the Iran-Russia wars. Transportation was made possible over the Aras River through this region. The remains of many fences and lookout stands shows the strategic condition of this area at the time. In addition, this village was a residence to some important members and ranks of the Safavi kings of the time. Thus a lot of attention was paid to this district at the time.

The distance between Kordahst and Makari (Maghari) is about 3 km.

Kordahst has 8 historical structures like the Big bath, Small bath, Gharib mosque, Fridge, Divan khaneh (court), Abbass Mirza Fort and Sakhlo (military camp).


 • Kordasht Bath

The structure is one of the most beautiful baths built in Azarbaijan area. It has a very traditional structure and architecture. it is built in a big garden.

It has an octagon shaped base. This 3.5*3.5 octagon has a height of 4.3 m. One of the sides of the octagon is the entrance and another is the entrance of the changing room.

The baths' changing area is also an octagon room with 3.5 m sides and a height of 8.5 m. It has a high dome on 8 stone pillars. All the walls and the eight pillars have beautiful decorations and engravings on them. There is a platform inside this area built for sitting, under which there are specially built compartments for shoes.

The water heating space is built on 4 stone pillars. It has 2 big rectangular pools and a room with an asphalt covered dome. The light of the heating room and also the changing room is supplied through a hole on top of the dome of their roofs. It is believed that there were thin layers of marble stones on these holes that gave way to light and lighted the inside of the bath equally. This way the needed light was supplied and the outsiders couldn't see the bathers.

This bath was built in Abbass Mirza, heir to Fatalishah's throne, period, in the second war between Iran and Russian. But the architecture is very close to that of the Safavi period.

 

• Kordahst Fort

There is a fort built in this area that has had a very significant military and historical role at the time of Abbass Mirza.

• Kordasht Village's situation

The village is in Varzegan district and Ahar County. The distance between Kordahst and varzegan is 66 km, between Kordahst and Ahar 126 km and between Jolfa and Kordahst about 70 km. This village is on the west of Ahar and Varzegan. Kordahst is situated inside a very beautiful valley on the south bank of the river Aras. On one of the surrounding mountains we have the ancient fort overlooking the village and inside the village we have the Kordahst Bath.

The climate of the area is hot and humid. Summer is hot and long and the winter is cool and mild. Sometimes in summer it gets up to over 40 º C.

The ancient fort of Kordahst was one of Abbass Mirza's forts used to defend the country against the Russians.

It seems that before using this fort, it was built in there and it dated back to the first century after Islam.

Abbass Abad Kordasht castle in built on the left side of Kordahst varzegan road on top of a hill. This castle has an entrance gate on the north and on higher grounds the walls are made of stone and brick. There are 6 lookouts for guarding this castle of which only ruins remain.

This castle has the capacity for many soldiers to camp here and be prepared to fight the intruding Russian troops. The soldiers used the pitch of the night to cross the river and attack the Russian camps.

In 1814 A.D when Russia crossed Aras and took control of Jolfa, Nakhjavan, Marand, Aslandouz, and started towards Tabriz, the castle fell into the enemy's hands and was destroyed to some extend. After the Torkamanchay treaty, the Russian soldiers stayed in this castle for some time. When they went back to Russia, the mean part of the castle was in ruins.

Then this castle was used by local governersm but not as a military fort anymore.

Here it is necessary to take a look back at the political and social situation of Iran at the time of the Golestan and Torkamanchay treaties. This will help us understand the importance of the area in the Iran-Russia wars.

a) The districts of Gorjestan, Daghestan, baku, Darband, Shirvan, Gharabagh, Shakhi, Ganjeh, Moghan, and a part of Talesh was given to Russia.

b) Iran didn't have any rights to sail ships in the Caspian Sea.

c) The Russian government promised to help any of Fathalishah's children if they were ever in need at the time of their reign.

 

Keeping in mind that at the same time Abbass Mirza was Iran's heir to throne, this was a support for his position. And practically it meant that Russia could impose power in Iran's internal affairs.

In the period between the Golestan treaty and the beginning of WWII no major events happened in the district except for some minor riots and Iran and Osmani war in which Iran defeated the Osmani forces.

During this time Iranian people heard of all the murders and tortures the Russians were committing in the ex-Iranian districts to the Muslims. The religious leaders in Iran talked and wrote against the actions of the Russians and excited the people. The exact border of the two countries wasn't agreed upon in the Golestan treaty. The Russians used this to trespass into Iranian lands time and time again which caused some problems. But Abbass Mirza talked them over and calmed the situation down to some extend.

The religious leaders gathered some people from Iraq, Esfahan and Tehran to go for 'Jihad' and fight the enemy. Iran's Shah didn't accept the Russian embassador and the Russians were taken by surprise when attacked by the Iranian forces. The Iranians were able to free some parts, but due to the lack of unity between the governors and the king's untactful behavior, this didn't last long.

 

With the beginning of the war, the people of Baku, Shaki and Shervan rioted and in Daghestan Russians were killed and murdered in groups. This paved the ground for the Iranian forces to move in. Abbass Mirza first got Shooshi fort and then moved on to Teflis. While he was surrendering Teflis, the Russians gathered a large army. The wars between Russian and the Osmani government came ot an end and thus the main focus was now Iran. Paskovich leaded the army to Iran and defeated Iran due to some treachery from some Iranian policy makers.

Ganjeh and Iravan were lost and paskovhich got Abbass Abad fort. Then he moved his army towards Azarbaijan. His next move was to invade Khoy, Marand and Tabriz. This is how Tabriz fell into the hands of Russians and was taken advantage of.

Abbass Mirza tried to attack the Russians once more in Torkamanchai district. He failed and was defeated again. The Torkamanchai treaty was signed in 5 Shaaban 1242 H.G.

 

•  The treaty stated that:

a) Iravan and Nakhjavan are Russian grounds and Iranian forces should move out of Talesh and Moghan as well.

b) Iran has to pay 10 koror tomans (5 million Rails) to Russia.

c) Russian ships are allowed to move freely in the Caspian sea and even near the coast

d) Russia has the right to send a council and embassador to any part of Iran as well as part of the business agreement signed between the 2 countries.

e) Supporting Abbass Mirza's heir and doing anything possible to make him succeed to the throne after the king's death

f) Freeing refugees on both sides. Russia has the capitalization judgement right.

Aras was agreed to be the border between the 2 countries and Abbass Abad Fort was used by the Russian forces for some time.